Performs a nil-coalescing operation, returning the wrapped value of an Optional instance or a default value.

    func ?? <T>(optional: T?, defaultValue: @autoclosure () throws -> T) rethrows -> T



    An optional value.


    A value to use as a default. defaultValue is the same type as the Wrapped type of optional.


    A nil-coalescing operation unwraps the left-hand side if it has a value, or it returns the right-hand side as a default. The result of this operation will have the non-optional type of the left-hand side’s Wrapped type.

    This operator uses short-circuit evaluation: optional is checked first, and defaultValue is evaluated only if optional is nil. For example:

    func getDefault() -> Int {
        print("Calculating default...")
        return 42
    let goodNumber = Int("100") ?? getDefault()
    // goodNumber == 100
    let notSoGoodNumber = Int("invalid-input") ?? getDefault()
    // Prints "Calculating default..."
    // notSoGoodNumber == 42

    In this example, goodNumber is assigned a value of 100 because Int("100") succeeded in returning a non-nil result. When notSoGoodNumber is initialized, Int("invalid-input") fails and returns nil, and so the getDefault() method is called to supply a default value.