A type that can be initialized using a dictionary literal.

    protocol ExpressibleByDictionaryLiteral

    A dictionary literal is a simple way of writing a list of key-value pairs. You write each key-value pair with a colon (:) separating the key and the value. The dictionary literal is made up of one or more key-value pairs, separated by commas and surrounded with square brackets.

    To declare a dictionary, assign a dictionary literal to a variable or constant:

    let countryCodes = ["BR": "Brazil", "GH": "Ghana",
                        "JP": "Japan", "US": "United States"]
    // 'countryCodes' has type [String: String]
    // Prints "Brazil"

    When the context provides enough type information, you can use a special form of the dictionary literal, square brackets surrounding a single colon, to initialize an empty dictionary.

    var frequencies: [String: Int] = [:]
    // Prints "0"

    Conforming to the ExpressibleByDictionaryLiteral Protocol

    To add the capability to be initialized with a dictionary literal to your own custom types, declare an init(dictionaryLiteral:) initializer. The following example shows the dictionary literal initializer for a hypothetical CountedSet type, which uses setlike semantics while keeping track of the count for duplicate elements:

    struct CountedSet<Element: Hashable>: Collection, SetAlgebra {
        // implementation details
        /// Updates the count stored in the set for the given element,
        /// adding the element if necessary.
        /// - Parameter n: The new count for `element`. `n` must be greater
        ///   than or equal to zero.
        /// - Parameter element: The element to set the new count on.
        mutating func updateCount(_ n: Int, for element: Element)
    extension CountedSet: ExpressibleByDictionaryLiteral {
        init(dictionaryLiteral elements: (Element, Int)...) {
            for (element, count) in elements {
                self.updateCount(count, for: element)